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Kennel Cough – 5 signs of kennel cough in dogs

kennel cough

The canine infectious tracheobronchitisor a dog with kennel cough , more commonly known as “kennel cough”, is a condition that affects the respiratory system and usually develops in places where a wide number of dogs, such as kennels or breeding. This fact was the one that gave rise to the popular name of the affection.

Formerly, this disease occurred only in those kennels or kennels with inadequate hygienic conditions. However, with the increase in animal protection, abandoned pet shelters, dog walkers, dog shows, and, in general, places where a large number of dogs are concentrated. The pathology has spread more rapidly due to its high contagion rate, and not so much due to inappropriate conditions. If you suspect that your dog has been infected, keep reading this article and discover the symptoms and treatment of kennel cough .

What causes kennel cough?

Dogs with kennel cough is a highly contagious viral disease that is usually caused by the parainfluenza virus (PIC). Or canine adenovirus type 2, agents that weaken the respiratory tract and, as a consequence. Facilitate entry of opportunistic bacteria such as kennel cough bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), producing a bacterial infection and worsening the clinical status of the animal. However, there have also been cases in which the disease has developed due to the sole presence of the bacteria. Likewise, these are not the only kennel cough causes, since there have also been cases of herpesvirus and even the virus that causes canine distemper.

What does kennel cough sound like? In this way, wed see how this pathology directly affects the respiratory system. Producing in it an infection that can be more or less serious, depending on the agents that act, the external conditions, and the time that the dog has been infected. To get a better idea of ​​the type of disease we face. We could say that kennel cough is very similar to the flu that humans contract.

It is an increasingly common condition in dogs, it is not serious and can be eradicated with simple medical treatment.

How is kennel cough spread?

As we discussed at the beginning, the most common is that kennel cough develops in places where a significant number of dogs live. In these cases, controlling the disease is much more difficult than when it is a particular and isolated case.

This pathology is spread by the oral and nasal route . Once the animal has been infected, the viral agents can be transmitted to another dog during the first two weeks. For the Bordetella bronchiseptica bacterium the transmission can last up to three months. In this way, when a sick patient expels pathogens through respiratory secretions, another healthy one near him can acquire them and begin to develop the disease.

Puppies less than 6 months old are much more susceptible to this disease. Especially if we adopt a dog that has been exposed to significant stress situations, such as being locked in a cage, we must take special care and carefully observe if it presents any of the symptoms that we detail below.

In kennels, kennels, animal shelters, shelters with several dogs, etc., it is practically impossible to prevent the disease from spreading rapidly. Therefore, prevention is always the best solution. In the section dedicated to this point we will explain in detail how to prevent kennel cough.

On the other hand, there are no breeds more prone than others to contract kennel cough, however, there is a higher rate of contagion among puppies, elderly dogs, pregnant dogs or immunosuppressed dogs.

Signs of kennel cough in dogs

How do you know if your dog has kennel cough and What are the signs of kennel cough? Once infected, the dog will begin to experience a series of clearly identifiable symptoms. The most characteristic manifestation of this pathology is the appearance of a dry, hoarse, strong and constant cough , caused by inflammation of the vocal cords.

The cough may be accompanied by a slight expectoration of the secretions deposited in the respiratory system by pathogenic germs. This expulsion is often mistaken for mild vomiting or a foreign body. It is advisable to reserve a sample and take it to the vet so that it can be examined. In this way, in addition to analyzing the physical appearance of your dog. You can study the secretion expelled and offer a better diagnosis. You should know that these moderate vomitings are not caused by stomach problems. Remember that this disease only affects the respiratory system. They develop from the same inflammation and irritation of the throat produced by a dry cough.

The decay, malaise, lack of appetite, and energy are other symptoms of cough most common in dogs. If you notice that your dog has any of these signs, do not hesitate and go to the vet quickly. Although it is not a serious disease, it does require veterinary treatment to cure it and prevent it from getting worse.

And if secondary infections appear, the dog may have a fever , weakness, eye and / or nasal discharge, difficulty breathing, etc.

In provident dogs in kennels, kennels, or pet stores, exposed to stressful conditions, canine infectious tracheobronchial may lead to pneumonia.

My dog ​​has a dry cough and gagging, is it kennel cough?

Dry cough and retching or mild vomiting are the main symptoms of kennel cough . So it is common to think of this respiratory pathology when seeing these signs in the dog. Likewise, it is easy to confuse a cough with retching, so to clear up any doubts. It is best to visit the veterinarian to perform the relevant tests and determine if it is a case of canine infectious tracheobronchitis or not.

On the other hand, these signs not only appear in a picture of kennel cough, but are common to multiple problems related to the respiratory system. For example, they happen due to pharyngitis, bronchitis and even distemper.

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How to treat kennel cough?

How to detect kennel cough ? To diagnose this disease, the veterinarian will rely primarily on the symptoms, physical examination, and history of the patient. That is, if it is a puppy originating from a kennel or kennel with a large number of dogs, it is most likely that you suspect this pathology. Likewise, to guarantee the diagnosis, the specialist will request tests such as a blood test. Study of secretions collected by caregivers or X-rays.

Dogs cough treatment And how long does kennel cough last?

In particular cases, the first thing we must do is isolate the sick dog inside at home remedy for kennel cough, in a room just for him for at least seven days, or the duration of the treatment. This step is essential to prevent the disease from spreading and infecting neighboring dogs.

Once isolated, the simplest way to control and eradicate kennel cough is antibiotics for kennel cough. Depending on the condition of the dog and the progression of the disease. The veterinarian will choose to prescribe one type of medicine or another. Since several viral agents may participate in the development of this pathology. It is practically impossible to determine a standard medical treatment suitable for all cases. The most advisable thing is to go to your usual veterinary clinic so that a specialist can determine the best treatment to cure kennel cough.

In dogs that show decay and lack of appetite, we must ensure that they ingest the minimum amount of water stipulated by the veterinarian. To prevent dehydration, dilute the secretions deposited in the respiratory tract and promote ventilation.

Kennel cough in puppies

Puppies are the most susceptible and prone to catching kennel cough. Therefore, when adopting one, it is necessary to go to the veterinarian for a complete examination to confirm that the animal is in perfect condition. In addition, you will take the opportunity to start the vaccination and deworming schedule.

Puppy kennel cough is curable, if left untreated the animal could worsen to the point of death due to the intrusion of opportunistic bacteria and the development of secondary infections.

How Long Does dog Cough Last?

There is no established kennel cough incubation period , since the patient’s recovery depends entirely on the pathogen agent and the complications that may have arisen, such as the development of secondary infections, etc. If, for example, kennel cough has been caused by the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica , or it has worsened the clinical picture, the animal may take weeks and even months to recover, since this bacterium can remain in the respiratory system up to 3 months or more, especially if it is not fought.

Once treatment is started, curing kennel cough can take from a week to two. Of course, if you do not notice an improvement in the affected animal or observe serious side effects, it is necessary to go to the vet immediately.

How to prevent kennel cough?

Without a doubt, the best way to treat any contagious disease is through prevention. In kennels, kennels, pet stores, etc., it is essential to have adequate hygiene and optimal general conditions to preserve the health of the dogs. When this fails, pathogens are more likely to develop and begin to spread disease.

There is a kennel cough vaccination, designed to protect the dog from this specific pathology, Bb + PIC. However, the kennel cough vaccine is not available in all countries and, therefore, we cannot always use this preventive method. In this sense, it is essential to keep the mandatory vaccination schedule for dogs up to date, because although they do not prevent the appearance of kennel cough, it does help reduce symptoms and facilitate their cure.

Is the cough vaccine effective?

Although the kennel cough vaccine is one of the main prevention measures, the truth is that it does not guarantee that the animal will not contract it. Thus, a vaccinated dog can get canine infectious tracheobronchitis. However, it should be noted that, in general, the vaccine allows the disease to run much milder than in an unvaccinated dog, so it is much more likely to recover soon or suffer less severe symptoms. Therefore, in those dogs that live in communities, is recommended to vaccinate.

Is dog cough spread to humans?

Due to the rapidity with which this pathology spreads. It is not surprising that many wonder if kennel cough is also contagious to humans. Well, since Bordetella bronchiseptica is related to Bordetella pertussis. The bacterium is responsible for whooping cough in children. There are cases of both children and adults affected by this pathogen and, therefore. Canine infectious tracheobronchitis is considered a zoonosis. However, the rare cases in which this happens have occurred in people with a very weakened immune system (immunosuppressants). Such as HIV patients, patients who follow glucocorticoid-based therapy for a long period of time, etc. . In this way, we highlight, Kennel cough rarely affects humans.

This article is merely informative, at we do not have the power to prescribe veterinary treatments or make any type of diagnosis. We invite you to take your pet to the vet in the event that it presents any type of condition or discomfort.

If you want to read more articles similar to Kennel cough – Symptoms, treatment and contagion , we recommend that you visit our Respiratory diseases section .

How did my dog get kennel cough?

Kennel cough” is a term in dogs that is similar to saying a human has a cold. There is not a single bacteria or virus that causes kennel cough in dogs. In fact, dogs don’t have to be kenneled in order to get kennel cough. They just have to be in relative close contact with an affected dog. This may happen at a kennel, but could also happen at a grooming salon, dog show, dog park, or even a one-on-one interaction.

Dogs that are at high risk of developing kennel cough are recommended to receive the Bordetella vaccine. Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacteria that causes a severe form of cough and respiratory infection in dogs; it is related to the bacteria that causes whooping cough in humans. The most common Bordetella vaccine we use at Woodland Veterinary Hospital is an intranasal dose of Bronchi-Shield III, which protects against two viruses (parainfluenza and adenovirus-2) in addition to Bordetella.

However, just as a human can get a flu shot and still get a cold, it is possible for dogs to get the “kennel cough” vaccine and still end up with a cough from one of any number of other pathogens. Usually, these coughs are mild and go away within a few weeks; sometimes, they require medical treatment.


  • Mauro, L. (2006). Management of canine infectious tracheobronchitis (TIC) “Kennel Cough” . REDVET Veterinary Electronic Journal. ISSN 1695-704, Vol. VII, No. 2.
  • Constitution Veterinary Hospital. (2010-2011). Kennel cough . Nº4. Available at:
  • Ziegler, J. (2017). The black book of vets . Barcelona: Macro.
  • Sierra de Madrid Veterinary Hospital. Dog flu – tracheobronchitis (kennel cough). Available at:
  • Ríos, A. Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis . University of the Americas. Available at:

Reverse Sneezing in Dogs – Causes, Treatment and Care

Reverse sneezing in dogs is a disorder that can occur in our dogs, is very striking and disturbing because it seems that the dog is about to drown. There are many doubts among the tutors who observe it, mainly about how to act.

For this reason, we will explain what a reverse sneeze is in dogs, what causes it, what treatments a veterinarian may recommend, and how to care for a dog who has it in this Scoobydog article. Continue reading to learn everything:

Dog sneeze

Since canines and humans typically do not sneeze for the same reasons, it is obvious that when our dog sneezes, he is not doing so for the reasons we typically attribute.

Allergies, sinusitis, and colds are the most typical causes of sneezing. Dogs, on the other hand, typically sneeze because of dust, mites, and foreign objects in their noses. If we look at more concerning possibilities, we might find a tumor nearby or even episodes of overly excited or anxious sneezing.

Sneezing shouldn’t be concerning, barring a few exceptions unless it happens frequently or intensely. Coughing, on the other hand, should raise our awareness because it frequently signals a respiratory infection, whereas sneezing does not. They don’t frequently sneeze due to allergies, but that doesn’t rule out the possibility. They typically also exhibit other symptoms like skin rashes or itching.

What is sneezing in pets?

You may already be aware that dogs sneeze, but do you also know how they sneeze backward? Most dog owners haven’t even been able to talk about it, so when it does happen, questions and worries about its causes and effects surface.

A palatal or tracheal irritation-induced muscle spasm known as reverse or inverted sneezing results in forceful breaths of air. Many owners are concerned about this phenomenon because it may make it seem like their dog is drowning. However, generally speaking, it is not a serious or worrying issue.

Reverse sneezing is more common in dog breeds with brachycephalic or snub-nosed faces, especially pugs and bulldogs, which are prone to respiratory disease.

A sneeze’s difference from a tracheal collapse

As we’ve already mentioned, we shouldn’t be afraid of the reverse sneeze. Since complications—which are extremely rare—are not necessary for it to be serious. Tracheal collapse, on the other hand, is a phenomenon that should raise our suspicions. The reverse sneeze lasts for a shorter time, and when the animal vanishes, it appears as though nothing happened. Or that cough typically occurs, while the reverse sneeze is characterized by aspiration in collapse.

A tracheal collapse is a partial or complete obstruction of the trachea that happens when the muscular rings that make up the trachea begin to deteriorate. when this takes place. A hiss-like sound, breathing problems, coughing, and lethargy are among the easily observable symptoms the animal starts to exhibit.

Different degrees of tracheal collapse can occur; the least serious ones might even call for surgery, while others may only call for taking steroids or other outpatient treatments. The prognosis is better the earlier the disease is diagnosed. Therefore, it is best to take your pet to the veterinarian immediately if you notice any worrisome symptoms.

Causes of sneezing in dog

Due to the respiratory difficulties that result from having a flat or short nose, reverse sneezing occurs more frequently in dogs with these anatomical traits. Why does it only affect these racial groups and not others? What causes it specifically?

It is noteworthy that it not only occurs in brachycephalic breeds, whose elongated palates account for its appearance in these breeds but also in breeds with longer nasal passages. They exhibit more of the gag reflex- or pharyngeal reflex-induced reverse sneeze.

These spasms frequently happen in a variety of circumstances, including the presence of potent and pervasive odors, dust in the air, excessive excitement, or a tug on the collar or leash. Although not frequently, it could also be caused by an infection or virus. In these cases, however, the symptoms would persist and quickly deteriorate.

What to do if my dog ​​has a reverse sneeze?

If we notice that our dog frequently exhibits reverse sneezing. It is advisable to consult a physician to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other, possibly more serious health problems that could be confused with canine reverse sneezing. Knowing whether it is a symptom of an infection or another medical condition will also be helpful. The expert will clear up all of our questions, recommend treatment if he determines it is necessary, and give us guidance on how to act and take action.

How to cure sneezing in dogs: treatment

If our pet has been seen to reverse sneeze. We need to know if there is a solution and what to do to address them. Even though it is a very striking phenomenon, it is important to keep it in mind. Due to the fact that it is not considered a disease in the conventional sense, it cannot exactly speak of a cure.

Only if tumors or infections are present as the cause are there any treatments available. The veterinarian will decide what treatment is appropriate and how to administer it in the case of tumors. If it is an infection, a course of antibiotics is usually sufficient to treat it.

Reverse sneezing and vomiting in dogs

When a reverse sneeze occurs, the animal will occasionally adopt a posture and make noises that lead us to believe that it is experiencing the typical retching that comes before vomiting. The reverse sneeze is sometimes referred to as the “gag reflex,” but vomiting is not a part of it. Since it only affects the trachea and the palate, it isn’t nausea or an upset stomach.

It is important to distinguish saliva from bile or vomiting when sneezing.

Remedies for sneezing in dogs

Reverse sneezing is generally harmless and has no negative effects on the health of our pets, as we have already stated. However, it is common for us to feel overwhelmed if we witness it and think that our friend is having a bad time. In this circumstance, we can take some actions to lessen them, such as:

  • During the episode of the reverse sneeze, massage your throat.
  •  Carefully and briefly covering your nose will cause you to swallow saliva, which helps to soothe windpipe irritation.

However, the most crucial thing is realizing that when our pet sneezes, nothing happens. Stress will only make the episode worse, so we maintain our composure and try to normalize the situation.

At, we do not have the authority to recommend veterinary treatments or make any kind of diagnosis; this article is merely informational. If your pet exhibits any kind of condition or discomfort, we encourage you to take it to the veterinarian.

Read more articles like Reverse Sneezing in Dogs – Causes, Treatment, and Care if you’re interested. You should go to our section on respiratory diseases, in our recommendation.


  • Doust, R. (2004). Nasal Discharge, Sneezing, and Reverse Sneezing. Textbook of Respiratory Disease in Dogs and Cats, 17–29.
  • Jennifer Coates. Reverse Sneezing in Dogs: Is It Normal ?. 2019, from Pet MD Website:
  • Dr. Jerry Klein, CVO. (19.05.2016). What Happens When A Dog Reverse Sneezes ?. 08.21.2019, from American Kennel Club Website:

Dog Skin Allergies

One of the most common medical complaints we see in our office is dogs with skin infections, “hot spots” or allergic dermatitis, also known as atopic dermatitis (atopy), so if you want to know how to cure Dog Skin Allergies , you should keep reading this post.

Unlike people who react to allergens most commonly with nasal symptoms and / or hives, dogs react with skin and / or gastrointestinal problems. This is because there is a higher proportion of mast cells, which release histamines and other vasoactive substances in the face of an allergic challenge, in the skin of dogs.

These problems can range from poor coat texture or hair length, to itching and chewing, to hot spots and self-mutilation, gastrointestinal pain and discomfort, diarrhea and flatulence. Allergies can also play a role in chronic ear infections.

Intradermal skin tests can also be done. In this test method, a small amount of antigen is injected into a shaved part of the dog’s skin. This is done in a specific pattern and order, so that if the dog shows a small elevated reaction, the offending antigen can be identified.

After a period of time (hours), the shaved area is examined to detect which antigens, if any, created a reaction. Allergy tests are performed to develop a specific therapy for the allergic animal.

How to cure Dog Skin Allergies

Once you have identified the causes and the diagnosis, it is time to learn about the treatments that will allow you to know how to cure dermatitis in dogs, and they are:

1.- Medicated bathrooms

Many medicated shampoos have compounds that aim to soothe broken skin and calm inflammation. Also, frequent bathing (weekly to every two weeks) of the dog can remove allergens from the hair, which can contribute to skin allergy flare-ups.

Medicated baths are a great way to learn how to cure dermatitis in dogs, but the ones we recommend are those that actually contain antimicrobial and antifungal agents, as well as ingredients that allow the skin to bathe more frequently without drying it out.

Applying a post rinse also helps prevent skin and hair from drying out.

2.- Antihistamines

Antihistamines can be used safely in dogs. About a third of homeowners report success with antihistamines. These medications are excellent for understanding the most effective way to cure dermatitis in dogs, as they tend to have a variable effect between dogs. For some allergic dogs, antihistamines work very well to control the symptoms of allergic skin disease.

For other dogs, very little effect is seen. Therefore, a minimum of three different types of antihistamines should be tried before owners abandon this therapy.

Examples of antihistamines commonly used for dogs include Benadryl, Chlortrimeton, Atarax, Claritin, Zyrtec, and Clemastine. However, antihistamines are considered worth trying in most cases, as the side effects associated with antihistamines are low and they are generally inexpensive medications.

3.- Antibiotics and antifungal medications

Antibiotics are often needed to treat secondary skin infections. Antifungal medications are often needed, to treat secondary yeast infections, this is something necessary to learn how to cure dermatitis in dogs.

4.- Flea control

For dogs with this problem, a strict flea control regimen must be maintained. The best flea control options include using products like Advantage, Revolution, Frontline, Comfortis, and Sentinel.

5.- Supplements

Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acid supplements work to improve the overall health of the skin. These fatty acids are natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. They are reportedly helpful in 20% of allergic dogs. My own experience puts this figure a bit higher.

Without a doubt, they are worth a try to have more options when learning how to cure dermatitis in dogs, and because they are not harmful and have virtually no side effects. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish oils and omega-6 fatty acids are derived from plants that contain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA).

These supplements are different from those sold to produce a shiny coat. Products that contain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids include Alergen Caps and Halo.

6.- Hypoallergenic diets

Allergies develop through exposure, which is why most hypoallergenic diets incorporate protein and carbohydrates that your dog has never had before. As mentioned above, the quickest and best way to determine what foods your dog may or may not be allergic to is through allergy diagnostic tests.

Since dairy products, beef, and wheat are responsible for 80% of food allergies in dogs, these items should be avoided.

New sources of protein used in hypoallergenic diets include venison, egg, duck, kangaroo, and types of fish not commonly found in pet food. Carbohydrate sources include potatoes, peas, sweet potatoes, sweet potatoes, and canned pumpkin.

Hydrolyzed protein diets are diets in which the protein source has been synthetically reduced to small fragments.

The theory behind feeding a hydrolyzed protein source is that the proteins in the food should be small enough that the allergic dog’s immune system does not recognize the protein fragments and does not generate an immune response that results in an allergy.

Most pets with food allergies respond well to a store-bought hypoallergenic diet, but sometimes an animal suffers from allergies so extreme that the only option is a homemade diet. In this case, the diet must be personalized with the help of a veterinarian in order to know how to cure dermatitis in dogs.

7.- Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents

Cortisone products like prednisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone reduce itching by reducing inflammation. These medications are not without side effects, so they should be used wisely in treating skin allergies.

Steroids should be considered only when allergy season is short, the amount of medication required is small, or to relieve a dog in extreme discomfort. Side effects can include increased thirst and appetite, increased need to urinate, and behavior changes.

Long-term use can result in diabetes and decreased resistance to infection. In some dogs, long-term low-dose alternative day therapy is the only management protocol that successfully controls the atopic pet.

This protocol should be used only as a last resort after all other methods have been exhausted to avoid potential long-term complications from the medication.

Cyclosporine (Atopica) is a drug that appears to be quite effective in reducing inflammation associated with skin allergies and in calming the immune system of the affected dog. However, the price of cyclosporine can be prohibitive for larger breed dogs, something to keep in mind when learning how to cure dermatitis in dogs.

8.- Immunotherapy (Hypo-sensitization)

Allergy shots are very safe and a great way to understand how to cure dermatitis in dogs, and many people have great success with them; However, they are very slow to work. It may take six to twelve months before improvement is seen.

Once the allergens for the dog are identified, an appropriate immunotherapy is made for that specific dog, and treatment can begin. Similarly, once the offending antigens are identified, a mixture of these antigens can be formulated in a hyposensitizing injection.

Depending on the type of agents used, these injections will be given over a period of weeks to months until the dog or cat develops immunity against the agents. After initial protection, an occasional booster may need to be given.

9.- Environmental control

If you know what substances your dog is allergic to, it will be easier to understand how to cure dermatitis in dogs and how to avoid using them. Even if you are desensitizing the dog with allergy shots, it is best to avoid the allergen entirely.

Molds can be reduced by using a dehumidifier or by placing activated charcoal on exposed soil on your house plants. Dusts and pollens are best controlled by using an air filter with a HEPA filter. Air conditioning can also reduce the circulating amounts of allergens in the air because windows are kept closed.

10. Medications for the thyroid

Healthy skin and a normal coat are the result of many factors, both external and internal. There are several glands in the body responsible for the production of hormones that are vital for the regulation of other bodily functions, as well as a normal skin surface and coat of hair.

Hypothyroidism can result in a poor layer of skin and hair, including hair loss or abnormal hair change, dull or brittle hair, altered pigmentation, and oily or dry skin.

A blood test is the simplest and most direct way to tell if your dog has hypothyroidism. The thyroid test may include all or part of the following:

However, there are other conditions that can cause T4 to drop, so if this test comes back positive for hypothyroidism, a vet should recommend an additional blood test, either the T3 test or the baseline TSH test.

  • The baseline TSH test: measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. In combination with the T4 or T3 test, it provides a more complete picture of the hormonal activity of your dog’s thyroid gland.
  • T4 by RIA test (radioimmunoassay): The Free T4 test with RIA techniques does not appear to be more or less accurate than the previous TT4 test.
  • Free T4 by ED (Equilibrium Dialysis): This test can provide more accurate data on the level of T4 hormone in your dog’s bloodstream.
  • T3 baseline test: In combination with the T4 or TSH test, these two blood tests can provide a clearer picture of the hormone levels found in the bloodstream.

This test is not reliable when used alone. The T3 test should always be administered in combination with one of the other blood tests.

  • TSH Response Test : In this test, the vet takes an initial measurement of the thyroid hormones in your dog’s bloodstream. And then injects thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) into the vein.

After 6 hours, a blood sample is drawn and the T4 level is checked. If your dog is hypothyroid, the T4 level will not rise even after injecting TSH. This is an expensive test and is used less frequently due to less production by manufacturers.

Hypothyroidism is treated with a daily dose of synthetic thyroid hormone called thyroxine (levothyroxine). Blood samples should be drawn periodically to assess the effectiveness of the dose and to make any necessary adjustments.

Successful management of the atopic and allergic dog is sometimes complicated and frustrating because multimodal management is necessary in most cases to control allergic outbreaks.

Proper diagnosis by a veterinarian and owner and follow-up care is essential to maximize the chances of curing or at least managing the severely affected allergy patient. So knowing how to cure dermatitis in dogs is more than necessary.

References :

Why do dogs eat poop

You may have seen your dog eat poop once. Why do they do it? Why do dogs eat poop?

Of each and every disgusting habit that our canine companions have, drinking from the toilet, rolling in the mud of the quagmire, licking their butt, etc, nothing beats the disgusting practice of eating poop.

There is a scientific name for this habit: coprophagia (kop-ruh-fey-jee-uh), and also behavioral and physiological reasons why certain dogs view manure as a delicacy. If you have a poop eater, don’t despair; there are ways to discourage the habit. The truth is that it has not been deeply investigated by science, there are few studies in this regard, eating poop is a relatively common phenomenon. In 2012 research presented at the American Veterinary Society of Animal Behavior annual conference, scholars led by Dr. Benjamin Hart of the University of California, Davis, found that:

Hart wrote: “Our conclusion is that eating fresh feces is a reflection of an innate predisposition of ancestral canids that live in the wild and protect members of the pool from intestinal parasites present in feces that may occasionally end up in the area. den / roost. “Their study consisted of 2 separate surveys of about 3,000 dog owners.

Although it’s disgusting to human sensibilities, it really isn’t that bad from a canine point of view. Dogs evolved as vultures, eating what they found on the ground or in the garbage can, so their haute cuisine ideas are somewhat different from ours. In his Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training, animal behaviorist Steven R. Lindsay states that coprophagia “may be one of multiple appetitive survival behaviors that have evolved to address the periodic problem of starvation.” In other words, when food is scarce, you cannot be picky.

Eating poop is normal for mothers and puppies

For certain species, such as rabbits, eating fecal droppings is a totally normal way to get key nutrients. In truth, if you prevent rabbits from doing this, they will develop medical problems and the young will not thrive. Fortunately, dogs don’t need to get nutrients like this. However, it is a normal and natural behavior in certain stages of the canine life. Mother dogs will lick their puppies to help them remove and clean their poop throughout the first 3 weeks. Puppies will naturally engage in this behavior as well, eating their feces (known as autocoprophagia) and those of other dogs (allocoprophagia), as well as cats and other animals. Certain dogs find horse manure and chicken droppings particularly attractive. Eating their poop is harmless, but consuming other animals’ poop can lead to medical problems if the stool is contaminated with parasites, viruses, or toxins. In most cases, this behavior will disappear before the puppy is about 9 months old.

Certain facts about dogs that eat poop

When it occurs in puppies, coprophagia is generally considered a part of the process of exploring the world around them . Most of them will be satisfied with an inhalation, but some will want to eat it, like little humans who put everything in their mouths. A strange fact: dogs rarely eat loose, malformed stools or diarrhea. They seem to be more attracted to hard poop. The frozen ones, in particular, are swallowed with pleasure. In his study, Hart made other observations about poop intake by dogs:

– Coprophagia was more common in multi-dog households. In households with just one dog, only 20% did, while in households with three dogs, the figure rose to 33%.

– Bitches were more likely to do it than males.

– 92% want fresh stools, which are only 1 or 2 days old.

– 85% only ate those of other dogs, and not theirs.

Why do dogs eat poop?

If your adult canid starts eating manure, you should ask your vet to rule out medical problems such as:

Typically, dogs start eating their poop due to some kind of environmental stress or behavioral triggers, including:

– Parasites.

– Diets deficient in nutrients and calories

– Malaabsorption syndrome .

– Diabetes , thyroid disease, Cushing’s disease and other conditions that could cause an increase in appetite.

– Medications.

On many occasions, dogs start to eat their carra due to environmental stressors or other triggers:

Isolation : Studies have proven that dogs that are left alone in kennels or basements are more likely to eat poop than dogs that live close to their people.

Restrictive confinement : Spending too much time confined in small spaces can cause the problem.

Anxiety : Often as a result of a person employing harsh punishment or methods throughout home training. According to this theory, dogs can evacuate and then eat their excreta to get rid of the test, but then they are punished further. It becomes a vicious cycle.

Attention seeking – Dogs eat their poop to get a reaction from their humans, who will inevitably react. So, if you see your dog doing this, don’t overdo it.

Inappropriate association with real foodstuffs: Dogs that are fed very close to their feces can make a connection between the smells of foodstuffs and those of defecation and will not be able to tell the difference.

Living with a sick or elderly dog : Sometimes a healthy dog ​​will consume feces from a weaker canine member of the household, especially in cases of fecal incontinence. Scientists hypothesize that this could be related to the instinct to protect the herd from predators.

How to prevent your dog from eating poop

Veterinarians and dog owners have seen improvements with a handful of strategies, including:

Also read

Vitamin supplementation : There is a long-standing theory that dogs eat feces because they are missing something in their diets. Vitamin B deficiency, in particular, has been the main suspect, and studies have supported this. In 1981, scientists tested synthesized fecal microbial activity thiamine, a B vitamin. Other research found other remaining nutrients.

Enzyme supplementation : The modern canine diet is higher in carbohydrates and lower in meat-based protein and fat than the ancestral canine diet. Certain people have had success with a meat tenderizer that contains papain, an enzyme.

Unpleasant Tasting Products : The theory is that some flavors and odors are as disgusting to dogs as poop is to us, and that splashing certain amounts of these substances on the poop will make it less attractive. Many of these products contain monosodium glutamate, chamomile, derived from pepper plants, cassava, garlic and parsley.

Perhaps the best way to stop the problem is through methods of training and improving the dog’s environment, including:

– Keep the canid’s living area clean , including the garden, so that there is no poop to catch.

– Cat owners must keep the litter box clean or out of reach of the dog.

– Watch your dog on walks and immediately collect their droppings as soon as they are expelled .


Puppy shots. Are they mandatory, when to get them?

If we are going to live with a dog, vaccines are one of the veterinary actions that we must implement as a preventive routine, whether our partner is a puppy or an adult. Regardless of whether you live inside or outside the home. There are ignorance and mistrust around vaccines, which leads to losing sight of the vital importance they have in the prevention of deadly diseases. Below we clarify all doubts and present the recommended Puppy shots schedule.

How do vaccines work?

To understand how vaccines work, start by reviewing some basic immunology concepts. When an animal becomes ill, its immune system creates defenses , known as antibodies, against the invading antigen.

This process serves to fight disease and, very importantly, to create an immune memory. This allows that, in a second contact with the same pathogen, the organism reacts quickly, thus minimizing the disease. The problem is that the most serious pathologies can cause the animal to die on first contact .

In this way the animal forms an immunological memory and, if it is exposed to the disease naturally, it will fight it quickly, with the clinical picture being milder or even non-existent.

Why do you have to vaccinate dogs?

Dogs are exposed to different diseases in their day to day. Fortunately, most trigger a clinical picture that, although it can be complex, is usually treatable with veterinary intervention.

But other pathologies, on the other hand, are potentially fatal and there are only support and symptomatic treatment against them. Since the treatment that eliminates them is sometimes ineffective, science has directed its efforts to prevent them. And this is the job of vaccines.

Administering vaccines prevents and eradicates infectious diseases , contributes to public health by avoiding zoonoses, and reduces the use of antibiotics, among other functions.

Types of vaccines for dogs

Vaccines can be made from life (active), attenuated (with some activity), or killed (non-active) pathogens. The goal of this is to produce less reaction and good immunity. Sooner or later, they all need revaccination.

Most vaccines are given by subcutaneous injection, but there are also intranasal or oral vaccines (such as kennel cough). Another classification is established between monovalent, which are those that contain the vaccine against only one disease, or bi, tri, tetra or polyvalent, depending on whether they include two, three, four, or more vaccines.

What is the vaccination schedule?

It is the name given to the protocol that is followed for the administration of vaccines . The calendar tells us which vaccines must be given and when, also indicating the necessary revaccinations and the vaccines that are considered optional.

It is usual that it varies according to the countries and even the regions or communities, and the living conditions and characteristics of the dog must always be taken into account. Therefore, it is best to adapt the calendar to each case and, if we are going to travel, inform us of the requirements at the destination.

Currently there are numerous vaccines at our disposal to protect our dog. Most have been in use for years with great success .

New vaccines will surely be developed in the future. In the following sections we will review those that are considered essential and optional, as well as briefly describe the disease against which they immunize.

Canine distemper vaccine

The distemper is a serious and highly contagious viral disease that affects puppies, especially those not vaccinated between 6 to 12 weeks. The clinical picture includes catarrhal, digestive and neurological symptoms. The sequelae can be lifelong, such as hypoplasia of the dental enamel.

Mortality is high, especially when the nervous system is affected. It is a vaccine considered essential. It is given to puppies at 6 weeks of age and as a booster later in the next two vaccines. Revaccination is recommended for adults.

Infectious hepatitis vaccine

This highly contagious viral disease is caused by canine adenovirus type I. It mainly affects children under one year of age. It will mainly damage the liver. The clinical signs of infectious hepatitis can range from vomiting and jaundice (yellow mucous membranes) to corneal edema.

It can manifest itself more or less seriously . In some very acute and serious cases, the dog dies within hours. It is one of the essential vaccines and also protects against adenovirus implicated in kennel cough (type 2).

Leptospirosis vaccine

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that usually preferably affects the liver and kidney. Its symptoms are going to be related to these organs, although very different signs may appear. Is a zoonosis.

It is included in the polyvalent vaccine, which is given at 9 weeks of age. It is recommended to repeat this dose annually. Yes, it is usually part of the usual calendar.

Parvovirus Puppy shots

The parvovirus is a very serious and contagious viral disease that affects mostly puppies few weeks old. It is characterized by severe vomiting and possibly bloody diarrhea that eventually dehydrates the dog.

Is considered an essential and mandatory vaccine that is administered to puppies and is included in the annual revaccination programs for adults. It is a veterinary emergency, so if your puppy has diarrhea, it is best to go to the vet immediately . Vaccination drastically reduces the possibility of contagion but not one hundred percent, so do not trust.

Rabies vaccine

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic viral disease which, although in developed countries has been controlled through vaccination, still causing human deaths in areas like India. The administration of this vaccine, which is considered essential, will depend on the legislation of the place where we live.

The first dose can be administered to three-month-old puppies and, if we look at the scientific evidence, it should be repeated every one, two or three years, depending on the manufacturer. The problem is that it is usually a mandatory vaccine by law and it is this that will specify when to give it.

Parainfluenza vaccine

The canine parainfluenza virus (multipurpose vaccine) is implicated in kennel cough. This vaccine offers protection but does not prevent infected animals from shedding the virus in their nasal secretions , making them contagious.

There is a vaccine combined with the Bordetella bronchiseptic vaccine that does prevent this possibility. It is one of the vaccines that does not seem to reach twelve months of protection, so it would be advisable to give it twice a year to the highest-risk dogs.

Bordetella bronchiseptic vaccine

This bacteria can cause kennel cough. In principle, it is not a very serious disease, but in some dogs, it progresses to pneumonia, which can have a more reserved prognosis.

It is recommended for dogs that are going to stay in places such as residences, shelters, participate in dog shows, etc. The vaccine can be intranasal, injectable or oral (latest updates of the vaccine) and is the one that is requested to stay in kennels.

Borreliosis or Lyme disease vaccine

There are also vaccines available that can help prevent Lyme disease in humans. However, in dogs constant annual prevention against external parasites is more efficient.

However, prevention in other countries where this disease is more common may be different, so you should always consult the veterinarian in the area where you are, since the prevalence of diseases is different depending on the country in which we are. .

Canine herpesvirus vaccine

They are contagious by direct contact with respiratory or genital mucous secretions, although they generally do not cause symptoms or clinical symptoms in their new host until later.

Puppies are often infected in utero , at birth, or through contact with littermates. In the case of the transplacental route, the effects are different depending on the stage of gestation, they are usually abortions. Vaccination is applied to the pregnant mother, since the virus can infect the puppies in the womb.

Leishmaniasis Puppy shots

It is a disease caused by a protozoan and transmitted by a mosquito. As it can affect several organs, its symptoms are varied. In most cases it is a lifelong treatment . A recombinant vaccine is currently available. It can be used in dogs older than six months and is effective with two doses and annual revaccination.

First, the status of the dog with respect to the disease must be assessed through serological tests because it is only recommended to administer to uninfected dogs to be effective. The vaccine does not act against the transmitting mosquito, so deworming is still essential annually, especially in endemic areas.

What are the mandatory vaccinations?

On this point we must inform ourselves of the legislation in force in our place of residence. In Spain, this competence is transferred to the Autonomous Communities, which explains the differences between territories.

In addition, the laws on animal protection are changing, so it is advisable that we inquire at the veterinary center . The vaccines we recommend, which are considered mandatory in some communities, are the ones we have rated as essential.

Administering all the others will depend on the living conditions and the characteristics of the dog. These factors determine the risk of contracting these pathologies. It will be the veterinarian who assesses the need to apply the corresponding vaccines. Then the owner will be the one to decide if they apply or not .

At a general level in Spain, we can assess the following vaccines as highly recommended, in addition to some totally mandatory by law such as rabies.

  1. month and a half should be vaccinated against parvovirus and distemper.
  2. At two months and one week the polyvalent (I remember the previous two, leptospira, hepatitis, and influenza virus).
  3. It should be revaccinated three months after the polyvalent (vaccine from which it can go out). You can get vaccinated for kennel cough below.
  4. At four months rabies. Then you can put the leishmaniasis
  5. Every year : multipurpose vaccine (reminder) and rabies vaccine (in some autonomous communities a recall is required every two years, in the majority every year).

Puppy shots

Puppies, having an immature immune system, are more prone to infectious diseases. To avoid this, it is essential to start vaccinating them as soon as the immunity conferred by their mother decreases , between 6-8 weeks. A single dose of a vaccine is able to stimulate the immune system, but it is the second that immunizes almost one hundred percent.

Therefore, in puppies it is necessary to repeat the dose of the same vaccine 2-3 times until optimal protection is achieved. It is recommended not to finish revaccination before 12 weeks. Until we have completed all the vaccinations of this stage it is important that we do not take the puppy for a walk . From the second multipurpose or third vaccine, it can be taken out onto the streets.

Vaccination in adult dogs

Once the vaccination schedule for the puppies has been completed and, therefore, an adequate immunization has been achieved, the objective becomes to maintain it. For this the dog must be periodically revaccinated . Revaccination is usually annual and contains essential vaccines. Depending on the circumstances of each dog, the calendar can be altered.

When we adopt an adult dog whose vaccination history is unknown or one that has been vaccinated as a puppy but has not been revaccinated for years, the current recommendation is to administer a single dose of the multipurpose vaccine chosen for essential revaccination. Then the revaccinations are followed as with any other dog.

Vaccination in elderly dogs

From the age of 8-10 it is debatable whether revaccination should be continued. The immune system of older dogs reaches a time when it is not able to respond to vaccination. Each case would have to be weighed and risks and benefits assessed. The rabies vaccine will continue to be administered by legal imperative.

Why do you have to revaccinate ( Puppy shots )?

The immunity conferred by vaccines can be temporarily limited. This means that the memory that may have been created in the immune system after its administration will be exhausted in a while. This varies depending on each vaccine. Therefore, to maintain protection, revaccination is essential.

There is no debate about revaccination in general, but there is debate about when each specific vaccine should be repeated. Distemper, parvovirus, or rabies vaccines appear to maintain immunity for over a year in an adult dog that has been properly vaccinated. It is believed that they could immunize from 3 to 9 years and even for life.

On the contrary, other vaccines fail to protect twelve months. That is why it is interesting that, taking into account the dog’s living conditions, the veterinarian draws up an adapted vaccination schedule. It should also be borne in mind that some vaccines are marketed together, so revaccination is usually annual.

Keeping our dog vaccinated correctly, protects him and protects us.

Puppy shots fail?

Yes, vaccines may not offer 100% protection , none of them do. As well as if they are applied to a dog that is not in a position to develop an adequate immune response. That is why it is so important that we always go to a veterinarian to minimize errors. Also, some diseases are caused by different strains and a vaccine is not always available for all of them.

Why are Puppy shots so expensive?

The price of the vaccines will be different depending on the veterinary center. When our dog is a puppy, having to vaccinate several times can seem expensive, but then we are talking about in general, a single or two vaccines a year.

When deciding to share life with a dog, we must know that it involves a series of fixed expenses. The vet is one of them. We have to assume deworming and vaccines as essential. In addition, vaccinating is a clinical act that can only be performed by a veterinarian who has invested effort and money in training and setting up a clinic.

The fixed benefit of vaccinations for the veterinarian allows other services, such as surgeries, to be offered at a more affordable amount. Finally, the cost of treating the dog if it is infected with any of the diseases is much higher than the price of a vaccine and does not guarantee, in many cases, cure.

Related Posts

Do Puppy shots have side effects?

In the hours after inoculation, the animal could present discomfort, inflammation in the puncture area, fever, an allergic reaction on the face or back, or a decrease in activity and appetite.

  • Possible Side Effects of Vaccines

Contraindications to vaccination ( Puppy shots )

When a dog already has any disease, parasites, allergies or any condition that reduces the functioning of its immune system, vaccinating it may not help, since its body will not be able to form the necessary antibodies.

For dogs undergoing immunosuppressive drug treatments, vaccination is not recommended either. In females in a state of pregnancy or in which there is a well-founded suspicion that they may be pregnant, it is contraindicated to vaccinate, except for herpesvirus or in some specific situation that the veterinarian must assess.

In addition, the puppies will be protected by the antibodies transmitted by their mother for about eight weeks. Depending on each case, the veterinarian will consider vaccinating them before, so as not to interfere with these antibodies. That is why putting a vaccine is a clinical act only the competence of the veterinarian, who must first check the animal.

Carlson and Giffin (2002): A practical manual of canine veterinary medicine. Madrid: Editorial el Drac.
Fariñas, Fernando (2015): Animal-dependent vaccination failures: myths and realities. Veterinary Portal, October 21, 2015.
Framework of good practices for the use of vaccines in animals (2019): use-of-vaccines-in-
animals_4176_347_4417_0_1_in.html Roura, Xavier (2015): Control of canine leptospirosis in Europe: Is it time for a change? Veterinary Portal. January 7, 2015.
Simón, Mª Carmen Simón (2017): How to establish a vaccination plan. Ateuves nº 6, pages 22-26.
WSAVA (2016): Guidelines for the vaccination of cats and dogs:

Most expensive dog breeds

Surely you have ever seen the largest dog in the world, or the smallest, either in photo, video or through the Guinness Book of Records. But in addition to their size, character or obedience … some dogs also become famous for their peculiar price. So which is the Most expensive dog breeds in the world?

Most expensive dog breeds

Before giving you more information about the most expensive dog in the world, we want to express our total disagreement with the sale of animals. It does not seem fair to us that they raise dogs for sale while in kennels and shelters they are saturated with dogs looking for a home. So we strongly insist that you adopt dogs, not buy them.

In municipal and animal protection kennels, you will find purebred dogs and mongrel dogs, you can adopt them for free, paying only for their mandatory vaccinations and identification chip (these expenses vary depending on the country of residence). Why pay for a dog when we can adopt one for free? There are millions of dogs waiting for a home, adopt.

The most expensive dog in the world is a red-haired Tibetan Mastiff.

It was sold for one million four hundred thousand euros (one million nine hundred thousand US dollars or twelve million yuan). It was bought by a real estate developer.

Its history is very common, it is a dog very physically similar to lions, it has a very unique mane and tail, which makes it very similar to these big cats. It is a faithful and guardian dog, of great size that has become very fashionable among the upper classes.


Throughout history, this breed of dog has been used for hunting and as a guard dog in the Asian area. It reaches ninety or one hundred kilos in weight and a height of eighty centimeters, from the ground to the shoulders. Its maintenance is very high due to the large amount of food it needs on a daily basis. Its physical maintenance is also complicated, due to its long and intense coat it is not a suitable dog for hot or tropical climates, however it is an excellent option for extremely cold climates.

We must brush it daily and bathe it every month, in addition to carrying out thorough checks on its legs and fur in search of small branches that may have been nailed or parasites such as ticks.

In general, their fur is red, but you can also see specimens of other colors although not so valued economically.

We will never understand why you pay for an animal, just as we will never understand why you pay for a human. But since there has to be everything on the planet … this is, at the moment, the most expensive dog in the world.

If you have any questions you can leave them in the comments, no registration is necessary. We answer 100% of inquiries.


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Can dogs drink milk?

It is very curious to observe the very contradictory opinions that are obtained when looking for information on whether a dog drinks milk. Some indicate that they can not only drink milk but that it is also recommended, while others indicate that it is not a good idea.

The truth is that they are all a bit right whenever we talk about adult dogs since puppies require more specialized care. We are going to review when a dog can drinks cow milk and how careful we should be.

Table of contents

  • What is milk?
  • What problems can give milk to a dog?
  • Can dogs drink milk?
  • Can puppies drink cow’s milk?
  • What is the best milk for a dog?
  • Can a dog eat dairy?

What is milk?

Milk is a liquid secreted by the mammary glands of mammals for feeding their young. The form in which much of the energy it contains comes in a disaccharide called lactose, formed by the union of two monosaccharides: glucose and galactose.

Beverages made from legumes and cereals such as soybeans, oats or almonds are not considered milk.

In general, milk is a mixture of fat and water that does not precipitate , but remains stable over time. This stability is obtained thanks to proteins (caseins) that have one end that interacts with fat and another that interacts with water.

So in all cases we have :

  • Water.
  • Carbohydrates
  • Grease.
  • Proteins

Within the milk, each species has a different composition since, depending on the species, the offspring will have some needs or others. However, the milk whose consumption is more widespread in human consumption is the milk of Bos taurus females or as it is better known, cow’s milk.

The specific composition of this once pasteurized or sterilized in its “whole” format is :

  • 88.4% water.
  • 3.8% fat.
  • 3.06% protein.
  • 4.7% carbohydrates.

It may seem that the percentages of nutrients are small, but if we exclude water we have:

  • 32.75% fat.
  • 26.37% protein.
  • 40.51% carbohydrates.

In addition, proteins are of great biological value . It has vitamins A , D, E; B vitamins and vitamin C.

It is a well-known source of minerals, among which potassium and calcium stand out. The latter is also absorbed in an extraordinary way compared to other foods with higher calcium than milk itself, since it does not matter how much nutrient there is, but when it is absorbed.

Besides these minerals it also has zinc, iodine, iron, phosphorus, sodium and magnesium.

What problems can give milk to a dog?

Lactose intolerance : This is a condition derived from an enzymatic deficiency, specifically of lactase (it divides lactose into galactose and glucose) so that it can be absorbed.

The small intestine produces this enzyme during lactation and then stops, however, due to certain mutations many people and some animals continue to produce it.

When lactase stops being produced, it is not absorbed in the intestine and reaches the large intestine where certain bacteria can take advantage of it and proliferate above its usual concentration and cause diarrhea, flatulence and discomfort . In addition, lactose carries a lot of water and other nutrients that are dissolved, so it also conditions their absorption.

This is the most common problem due to milk consumption and it does not always resolve when it is stopped, but it is not the only one.

Dairy allergy: It should not be confused with the previous one, since its symptoms come from the response of the immune system and the previous one does not. Sometimes the symptoms can be similar, but in addition to diarrhea, there is itching, redness of the skin, and otitis. Less frequent are respiratory symptoms. Despite being a less frequent problem than the previous one, it is true that dairy products are frequent allergens.

Unlike intolerance, in which a sugar was the origin of the symptoms, in this case it comes from the milk proteins and the symptoms do subside with the withdrawal of the food .

Can dogs drink milk?

The answer will depend on the dog. The easiest way to find out is by giving this food a try, knowing the dangers this can have for your health.

Of course, we do not consider it to be a recommended practice at all, nor do we propose the possibility that an animal’s diet depends on this food, despite how nutritious it may be.

Can puppies drink cow’s milk?

This is a totally reasonable doubt considering the contents that we have developed. The answer is no and we will explain why.

Milk of all species does not have the same composition. This is the comparative composition of bitch milk and cow’s milk :

Cow milkBitch milk
88.4% water78.6% water
3.8% fat9% fat
3.06% protein.8% protein
4.7% carbohydrates3.1% carbohydrates

Cow’s milk has a composition that is very different from what a puppy takes from its mother and also the concentration of lactose is higher, so it could not digest all of it and it would end the problems already mentioned.

It is a tremendously sensitive stage in the life of these animals and diarrhea can not only compromise their growth, but also their survival.

What is the best milk for a dog?

If you still want to try, one option would be lactose-free milk . Its nutritional value is similar to normal since it is simply treated with lactase. It maintains the composition of other milks (but also, the amount of lactose it contains is higher than what they could digest).

As for the amount of fat in milk (whole, semi or skimmed) there is no specific recommendation. If they are given in small amounts to a healthy dog, they are less likely to cause problems.

As for the commercial house, there is no one that is more suitable than another. Under no circumstances should raw milk be given to a dog .

Also Read

Can a dog eat dairy?

The answer depends on the dairy. In general, the more it is fermented, the less lactose it will have since this is the fuel that bacteria need.

In principle, it is not necessary that they be made of lactose-free milk, they will always be safer, but it does not compensate for the increased cost of these products.

Plain yogurts and aged or semi-aged cheeses can be safe. To see the effect on our animal, small increasing doses should always be administered and that the final amount does not leave any symptoms.

Another interesting product would be cottage cheese since it has little lactose. As for dairy allergy, this will occur in all products that come from milk, so a dog that has this condition will not be able to eat any dairy.


How much food should my dog eat?

One of the first questions that come to mind when having a dog is: How much food should my dog eat? It is a very obvious question with an answer that is not so obvious since it depends on many different factors.

If you spend a few minutes with us, you will learn how to calculate the amount of food for your dog in the best possible way and in a personalized way.

How much food should my dog eat?

The answer will vary depending on the diet the animal receives. If it is a commercial product, whether it is dry, wet, dehydrated or whatever, by law the dosage must be registered on the product.

However, this dosage guideline is for animals in maintenance or growth in case it is a valid product for this vital phase. It does not contemplate states such as pregnancy or lactation (unless the product is specific for this use). Likewise, within the maintenance itself, there is a lot of individual variety, we will see why this happens shortly.

In the case of being a non-commercial diet of unknown composition, it will depend on what we are feeding the animal and under what conditions.

How many times a day should I feed him?

This question will depend on several factors of both the animal and the owners. On the one hand, the physiological state of the dog (growth, adult, old age, lactation or pregnancy) and on the other the comfort of the owners. The idea is to arrive at the option that provides greater well-being for both owners and dogs and that does not neglect the minimum requirements that these require.

On the part of dogs, their requirements according to the physiological phase are :

  • Maintenance : The amount of food indicated on the container for the weight of the animal divided into 2 or 3 doses, depending on the behavior of the dog. If he eats with great anxiety with two feeds, it may be that he is starving and you have to increase the frequency. Nothing happens if they eat more than 3 servings a day as long as the amount is measured.
  • Old age : At this stage of life, animals tend to be less active, so their energy expenditure and needs are reduced. This usually manifests itself with the fact that by maintaining the same feeding frequency, they gain weight. In case you see this, the simplest thing is to reduce the amount of food by 10%.
  • Puppies : Once weaned, the energy needs are very high since they are very active and have many tissues to generate and also their stomach will be very small. Therefore, 3 or 4 feedings should be given a day and adjusted according to the age of the puppy.
  • Gestation : The needs increase progressively being very high at the end of this. The safest option is to administer a specific food for this stage. It is also preferable to go to 3 or 4 daily intakes since the needs are greater and due to the compression exerted by the fetuses, the stomach is smaller.
  • Lactation : The needs are very great and due to the care of the young, the time to eat is very small and does not necessarily have to adapt to the feeding schedule that we have established. For this reason, it is the only case in which free or ad-libitum feeding is recommended.

Obviously these shots must be distributed as evenly as possible throughout the day. The amount is highly recommended that it is always the same and that it is not given in times of great stress for the animals.

How much food should my dog eat?

Physical exercise and diet

This is another very important factor when it comes to regulating food since the more energy is consumed, the more energy is expended and when exercising, the amount of muscle mass is increased, which also increases energy expenditure.

Ideally, exercise and eating should be as homogeneous as possible throughout the week. However, it is very normal that this does not happen since on weekends we have more time to lower our pet, and it spends more time on the street.

Faced with the possibility of increasing the amount of food these days, it is more advisable that it be an increase in the intake of every day in order to have greater control, since weight variations are not immediate events but trends throughout the weather.

Food optional or free

In this, the feed is left all day and the bowl is filled once it is empty. This is a very widespread method because of how comfortable it is and in some cases the dog manages its diet well and does not get fat.

The normal thing is that it leads to the obesity of the animal because it eats more than it should and this is a very important health problem that does not have a quick solution. On the other hand, feeding the animal is not only about filling the container, but it also indicates the relationship that your dog has with his food: loss of appetite, pain when chewing, etc. With a free diet these problems can go unnoticed.


Another case is that of puppies that are left with food freely available. This option is also dangerous since it can cause a type of obesity called hyperplastic obesity in which the number of cells that contain fat is greater and it is very difficult to lose weight.

The only case in which this nutritional guideline would be indicated is in lactation and you should always return to feeding rationing when it is over.

There are many reasons why this practice is inadvisable. The dog will spend a significant part of the day hungry and will be faced with a very large meal. Due to his hunger, he will ingest it with anxiety and his stomach will be full and possibly dilated beyond what is recommended. He will have an easier time-twisting (which is a surgical emergency) or he will just end up vomiting.

Due to this increased ingestion speed, the chewing of the food will also be compromised, making its digestion and absorption more difficult and worse. In addition, the dog will spend much of the day hungry, which on a behavioral level will be a problem.

What happens if my dog ​​gets fat or loses weight?

There is no need to worry at all. The formulas for calculating the needs of dogs and cats apply relatively poorly to the individual animal, but work very well in populations. So it is totally normal for a dog to gain weight or lose weight .

In this case, the product itself will inform us that the ration must be lowered or raised by 10% compared to the recommended amount. Once this change has been made, we must wait a few weeks to assess whether there has been a change in the tendency to gain or lose weight.

Pathological situations

This category is very broad and the nutrition for each case is different. In general, a very characteristic symptom of a sick dog is that it does not want to eat . In this case, wet food becomes an interesting option because it is more palatable and has a higher digestibility.

On many occasions they are transitory situations in which the animal will need more energy, but it will not have an appetite to ingest it . Therefore, it is recommended that you eat as much as possible, but without forcing yourself so as not to generate aversion to food.


Symptoms of diabetes in dogs

Dogs and humans are much more alike than we usually think. And unfortunately, that means that we also share some diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2. This disease is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Next, we are going to detail what symptoms of diabetes in dogs should make us suspect that our dog has this pathology. It is very important that we seek veterinary assistance to balance glucose and avoid the complications derived from its increase.

What is diabetes in dogs?

Diabetes is a common disease in dogs. It can be type 1 or type 2:

  1. Insulin-dependent or Type I diabetes. In these cases, the body is no longer able to produce insulin, the disease arises from progressive destruction of the beta cells of your pet’s pancreas. This is the most common in our furry companions and is usually caused by cases of pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  2. Non-insulin-dependent or Type II diabetes. In it, your pancreas can continue to produce insulin at normal levels, but the rest of your tissues, liver, and muscles are less sensitive to it. This disorder appears when the body becomes resistant to insulin, it is less common in dogs, but more common in people and cats. Among the predisposing factors to suffer from this type of diabetes are: obesity, genetic predisposition and sedentary lifestyles.

Insulin works by helping glucose enter cells throughout the body, where it undergoes different processes to produce the energy necessary for the body to function.

Normally, blood glucose levels are high after eating (postprandial hyperglycemia), until the pancreas secretes the necessary insulin, and glucose levels fall because it has entered the cells.

However, in this disease we obtain chronic fasting hyperglycemia, that is, constant high blood glucose levels without having eaten , because there is no insulin that can introduce it into the cells to be used by the body.

When there is no insulin, the cells do not have the ability to detect that there is glucose, but they detect that they are not receiving it and send signals to produce more glucose.
This causes more fat and protein to be burned to produce glucose. The body accumulates this glucose, which the cells are not able to consume due to insulin deficiency and it ends up leaking into the urine, dragging a large amount of water with it.

What dogs can suffer from diabetes?

This disease can affect any dog, but a higher incidence has been found in some breeds such as the Golden Retriever, Poodle, Dachshund, Pinscher, Westy and Schnauzer, among others. So there seems to be a genetic predisposition .

In addition, it affects females to a greater extent, especially while females (not spayed/neutered females). The age of onset is between six and nine years old and the older our furry, the greater the risk of them suffering from diabetes.

Some Symptoms of diabetes in dogs

Among the different symptoms that we can appreciate in the face of what is colloquially known as a rise or fall in sugar, it is worth highlighting :

  • Glycosuria , which is the presence of a large amount of glucose in the urine.
  • Polyuria , the dog urinates in large quantities due to glucosuria, since glucose drags more water in the kidneys due to an osmotic diuresis.
  • Polydipsia , when urinating so much, the loss of fluids is compensated with an increase in water intake, to avoid dehydration.
  • Polyphagia , the increased appetite at first is due to the dog not being able to metabolize enough glucose. Subsequently, this is lost to the extent that the animal suffers from malnutrition.
  • Weight loss and muscle loss due to protein catabolism.
  • When the disease is advanced, it can affect all organs and produce symptoms such as lethargy , vomiting , weakness and, in the most severe cases, coma.
  • Associated complications include cataracts, kidney and neurological problems, urinary tract infections, or high blood pressure .

What is diabetic ketoacidosis?

It is a disorder that arises as a consequence of severe hyperglycemia , either due to undiagnosed chronic diabetes or insufficient insulin dosage. It produces the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood. Ketones are products of the metabolism of fats, the body uses them because it does not have glucose for energy.

Its symptoms are general weakness, vomiting, rapid breathing, and the smell of acetone on the breath . It is an emergency, the dog must be taken to the veterinary center immediately, as it is at high risk of death.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

To confirm that the clinical signs correspond to this disease, it is necessary to perform a blood and urinary analysis . In the first, we will detect fasting hyperglycemia, moderate elevation of liver enzymes such as ALT and alkaline phosphatase, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. On urinalysis, glycosuria, proteinuria, and depending on the severity, possibly also ketonuria will be detected.

Also, fructosamine levels can be determined, a protein that reflects the glycemia of the last 3 weeks, and that in diabetic dogs will be elevated. Exercise daily, as it increases the absorption of insulin.

Treatment of diabetes in dogs

It is important to keep in mind that the control of diabetes in dogs is completely different from that in human medicine . For this reason, despite being familiar with the disease, either because we know it or even suffer from it, we will always follow the veterinarian’s recommendations.

Treatment focuses on two basic pillars, which are food and medication.

Under the objectives of making symptoms disappear, avoiding complications of the disease (ketoacidosis, cataracts), controlling risk factors (obesity, right-handed in females, chronic infections) and avoiding hypoglycemia. The dog, in the case of insulin-dependent diabetes, will need us to administer insulin daily to compensate for the one that his body cannot produce. If we are rigorous with the treatment, the dog can lead a normal life.

Veterinary control must be exhaustive because each dog will need a different amount of insulin and even the doses will vary throughout the life of the same dog. For this reason, at the beginning of the treatment, the veterinarian will have to control the glucose levels of the dog to see when the maximum and minimum are produced . With all the information, the dose is adjusted and it is decided when to administer the medication.

Insulin administration precautions

The consequences of an inadequate administration of insulin can be serious , so it is essential that we follow the instructions of the veterinarian to the letter regarding the amount and type of insulin, its conservation, the frequency of administration or the type of syringes.

If we overdose, glucose can drop to alarming levels. This hypoglycemia causes confusion, sleepiness, tremors, staggering, seizures, and even coma.

Diet and diabetes

It is recommended that a diabetic dog consume a dry or wet diet with a high fiber content, low in fat, rich in protein, hypocaloric and with slow assimilation complex carbohydrates and low glycemic index , because they reduce the possibility of that triggers hyperglycemia. This is because they minimize glucose fluctuations after each intake and we will largely avoid the stimulation of the beta cells of the pancreas.

For sale in veterinary clinics we will find this type of food in different presentations. If we prefer a homemade diet, we must prepare a menu with the vet . In any case, the food should be administered in two or three daily intakes to avoid hyperglycemia after a large intake.

Finally, the insulin dose is calculated based on the daily calorie requirements, which depend on the weight of the dog and the activity it develops. That is why it is important that we do not vary the amount of food we offer each day. In addition, the dog must exercise daily, as it increases the absorption of insulin.

Obesity in diabetic dogs

In addition to a diet adapted to the dog’s disease, it is essential that we avoid being overweight. Obesity negatively affects health, complicates diseases, predisposes others, or makes anesthesia difficult. In the case of diabetes, it reduces the response to insulin, making it difficult to control.

Therefore, if the dog is overweight, in addition to treatment for diabetes, the veterinarian will determine its ideal weight and prescribe a suitable diet to achieve it. Weight reduction should be gradual (2-4 months), managing around 60-70% of the caloric requirements for your ideal weight. At present, specific feeds are available for these disorders.

Lean diabetic dogs

If the dog has already lost weight by the time diabetes is diagnosed, it is important that it return to its ideal weight and also regain its muscles, since in many cases protein catabolism ends up producing significant amyotrophy . To achieve this, low fiber diets are recommended because they contain a higher caloric density. We can also find them for sale.

What is the relationship between sterilization and diabetes?

As part of the treatment of diabetes, the veterinarian can recommend sterilization in the case of females, that is, the removal of the uterus and ovaries, by surgery. This is because progesterone has a hyperglycemic effect .

Prognosis of diabetes in dogs

The prognosis of this pathology will depend on each case. In addition, factors such as the owner’s ability to follow the prescribed treatment, the ease or not to control glucose levels, and the presence or absence of other diseases play a role.

Diabetes monitoring

During the first month, it is recommended that the check-ups be weekly , later they could become monthly until good control of the disease is achieved and once achieved, every 3 months. In them, symptoms, glycosuria and ketonuria, physical examination, punctual glycemia (6-8 h post insulin) and glycemic curves are taken into account, fructosamine measurements can also be added.

It is considered that there is good control of the disease when our furry does not show symptoms, maintains its stable weight (once the ideal weight has been reached), glycosuria is weakly positive and the values ​​of both glycemia and fructosamine are within of the standardized ranges.

When the disease is not well controlled, especially if high doses of insulin are being used. There may be a Somogy Effect (hyperglycemia secondary to hypoglycemia due to insulin overdose), shortening of the action of insulin or even the appearance of insulin resistance, generally associated with infections, concurrent diseases, right-handedness or certain pharmacological treatments.

Fortunately, a diabetic dog with proper treatment, and proper veterinary controls, will be able to have a perfectly normal quality of life, and longevity equal to that of a dog without the said disease.


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Symptoms of cancer in dogs

Cancer is a disease that affects numerous dogs each year, becoming one of the leading causes of canine death today. There are many types of cancer, and not all of them are life-threatening. As their name indicates, they will all be malignant tumors, so it is important to know how to detect them and start appropriate treatment. The symptoms of cancer in dogs will be varied depending on their location. However, we should always go to a veterinary clinic, so they can confirm the location and prognosis. 

Symptoms of cancer in dogs. Clinical signs of external tumors in dogs

A good proportion of cancer that affects dogs will be detectable by physical examination. These will be mostly skin cancer . What we will find will be masses on the skin or subcutaneous. These tumors can be more or less adherent, have a more or less smooth surface, appear rough or not, ulcerate or not, and of very different dimensions.

In this way, tumors will appear in the perianal area, such as hepatocarcinomas, in the testes such as Sertolinomas, in the mammary glands, in the mouth, ears such as squamous cell carcinoma, in the subcutaneous lipomas or throughout the skin surface such as mast cells or histiocytomas. Just by looking at our dog and feeling it regularly, we can detect them .

On the other hand, the veterinary check-up, at least annually, includes a thorough examination that also serves to detect cancer with these manifestations. Since although we detect them at home, it will be the veterinarians who, through samples of the masses, confirm the diagnosis.

Clinical signs of internal tumors in dogs

Cancer affects internal organs in the same way. Among them, the most frequently damaged are the spleen and liver. On the other hand, both the liver and the lungs are organs that are frequently affected by metastasis , especially the latter. Cancer can start in one part of the body, but can reproduce and affect other areas.

In internal organs, tumors are not externally observable, so the diagnosis can arrive at a very advanced stage of the disease. Symptoms that should make us suspect are weight loss, apathy, vomiting, diarrhea, ascites, pale mucous membranes, dyspnea, weakness …

Also, cancer is more common in older dogs . That is why it is important, not only to go to veterinary check-ups, but to periodically explore it ourselves at home. From the age of seven it is advisable to start routine annual exams. A checkup and, at a minimum, a blood test is ideal.

Common symptoms in dogs with cancer

As there are several different types of cancer, the symptoms can also be disparate and different depending on the type of cancer you suffer from. That is why we must look not only at what we can or could see with the naked eye, as external masses, but we must look at the systemic symptoms that our pet may externalize. These can be among many others :

  • Unjustified tiredness and fatigue
  • Unjustified weight loss
  • Lack of appetite, loss of appetite
  • Fall of the mood
  • Obvious symptoms such as the possible masses mentioned above.

If we appreciate one or more of these symptoms in our dog, we must go to a veterinarian for a complete check-up and provide us with a possible diagnosis in the event of a tumor, since the symptoms can be very nonspecific at times.

How to prevent cancer

In most cases, cancer unfortunately cannot be prevented . It is a condition that, aggravated by some possible external factor, cells begin to proliferate uncontrollably.

Depending on the type of cancer, there will be some factors that we must carry out or avoid so that this condition does not appear or is delayed as long as possible.

Related Links

Preventing our dog from being exposed to the sun during the strongest hours and for a long time will reduce as much as possible the probability of squamous cell carcinoma, especially those with white layers.

Above all and the most important thing is to go to a veterinarian if we appreciate any symptoms. An early diagnosis is half the battle won. No one is going to tell you online if your dog has cancer or not because it is necessary to perform complementary medical tests of precision.